Aviation fuel is a special type of petroleum-based fuel used for Aircraft propulsion.
Aviation fuels must:
- Be non-corrosive.
- Be pumpable.
- Be self-lubricating.
- Permit quick starting of the engine.
- Be resistant to fungus growth.
- Have a low freezing point.
- Have a high calorific value (produce a lot of heat when burnt).
- Have low emissions.
Types of aviation fuel
- Jet fuel
- Jet A-1
- Jet A
- Jet B
- Grade 100
- Grade 100LL
Jet A-1 is used globally in the Aircraft powered with turbine engines in civil aviation. Jet A-1 type aviation fuel is kerosene, and it is also called JP-1A.
Minimum Flash Point: 38 degrees C.
Maximum Freezing Point:-47 degrees C.
Jet A aviation fuel is a similar kerosene fuel type that is normally available only in the USA. It has the same flash point as Jet A-1 but a higher freeze point maximum (-40°C).
Jet B aviation fuel is used in military aviation. This fuel is a mixture of about 65% gasoline and 35% kerosene. This aviation fuel is used in low temperature regions.
Aviation gasoline is often referred to as “avgas” and is not dissimilar to normal vehicle petrol or gasoline.
Avgas is a gasoline-based fuel that is used in aircraft powered with piston engines.
This type of fuel is more volatile than kerosene-based fuels. A variation of this is Motor Gasoline (MOGAS), which is petrol from the garage forecourt.
There are mainly two grades of avgas used in general aviation community:
Grade 100 – This grade is 100/130. The lean mixture octane rating is 100 and the rich mixture rating octane is 130. It has a high lead content and is dyed green.
Grade 100LL – 100LL is the low lead version of Avgas 100. Avgas 100LL is dyed blue.