The type rating in the license authorizes you to exercise certification privileges on a specific aircraft type(s).
An Aircraft Maintenance Engineer is a licensed person (Aircraft Maintenance License, holder) who carries out and certifies aircraft maintenance. The license is widespread internationally and is recognized by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
In order to get an Aircraft Maintenance License, an applicant needs:
– Basic knowledge
– Basic experience
In order to get an aircraft type rating endorsed in the Aircraft Maintenance License, an applicant needs:
– Type Training (Theoretical and Practical)
– On-the-job Training (OJT) for the first Type Rating
What is a Type Training Course
A Type Training Course is aimed to provide the participant with the theoretical and practical knowledge required to certify particular aircraft maintenance tasks. The course is made up of various chapters highlighting intense information on aircraft models, aircraft operations, aircraft components, procedures, and problem resolutions at the maintenance manual level.
Upon completion of the Type Training Course, the participant will be able to:
- Apply the relevant safety precautions.
- Identify and apply aircraft technical documentation.
- Name, identify and locate aircraft system Components.
- Perform normal operation of aircraft systems.
- Perform the servicing and ground handling.
- Perform system operational tests and on-board maintenance system supported tests.
- Carry out routine thorough visual inspections.
- Describe component removal/installation procedures unique to the aircraft type.
- Determine aircraft airworthiness in accordance with MEL/CDL, and explain maintenance procedures according to the minimum equipment list (MEL).
- Correlate information for the purpose of making decisions in respect to fault diagnosis and rectification.
Aircraft Type Training Levels
The Type Rating Course comprises three levels.
The three levels listed below define the objectives, the depth of training, and the level of knowledge that the training is intended to achieve.
A brief overview of the airframe, systems, and powerplant as outlined in the Systems Description Section of the Aircraft Maintenance Manual/Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.
Upon completion of Level 1 training, the student will be able to:
- Provide a simple description of the whole subject, using common words and examples, using typical terms and identify safety precautions related to the airframe, its systems and powerplant;
- Identify aircraft manuals, maintenance practices important to the airframe, its systems and powerplant;
- Define the general layout of the aircraft’s major systems;
- Define the general layout and characteristics of the powerplant;
- Identify special tooling and test equipment used with the aircraft.
Basic system overview of controls, indicators, principal components, including their location and purpose, servicing, and minor troubleshooting. General knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject.
In addition to the information contained in the Level 1 training, at the completion of Level 2 training, the student will be able to:
- Understand the theoretical fundamentals; apply knowledge in a practical manner using detailed procedures;
- Recall the safety precautions to be observed when working on or near the aircraft, powerplant and systems;
- Describe systems and aircraft handling particularly access, power availability and sources;
- Identify the locations of the principal components;
- Explain the normal functioning of each major system, including terminology and nomenclature;
- Perform the procedures for servicing associated with the aircraft for the following systems: Fuel, Power Plants, Hydraulics, Landing Gear, Water/Waste, and Oxygen;
- Demonstrate proficiency in use of crew reports and on-board reporting systems (minor troubleshooting) and determine aircraft airworthiness per the MEL/CDL;
- Demonstrate the use, interpretation and application of appropriate documentation including instructions for continued airworthiness, maintenance manual, illustrated parts catalogue, etc.
Detailed description, operation, component location, removal/installation, and bite and troubleshooting procedures to maintenance manual level.
In addition to the information contained in Level 1 and Level 2 training, at the completion of Level 3 training, the student will be able to:
- Demonstrate a theoretical knowledge of aircraft systems and structures and interrelationships with other systems, provide a detailed description of the subject using theoretical fundamentals and specific examples and to interpret results from various sources and measurements and apply corrective action where appropriate;
- Perform system, powerplant, component and functional checks as specified in the aircraft maintenance manual;
- Demonstrate the use, interpret and apply appropriate documentation including structural repair manual, troubleshooting manual, etc.;
- Correlate information for the purpose of making decisions in respect of fault diagnosis and rectification to maintenance manual level;
- Describe procedures for replacement of components unique to aircraft type.
Aircraft Type Rating Training
Aircraft type training consists of theoretical training and examination, and, except for the category C ratings, practical training and assessment.
- Aircraft type training shall be conducted by a maintenance training organisation appropriately approved in accordance with Part-147 or, when conducted by other organisations, as directly approved by the competent authority.
- In the case of a category C person qualified by holding an academic qualification, the first relevant aircraft type theoretical training shall be at the category B1 or B2 level.
- The minimum pass mark is 75% in the type training examinations.
- As part of the practical training, at least 50% of the specified tasks which are relevant to the particular aircraft type, must be completed. Particularly where the subject cannot be fully explained by theoretical training alone. After the practical, an assessment must be performed.
- Aircraft type rating can also be endorsed after differences training, as per specified conditions.
What is Differences Training
Differences training is the training required in order to cover the differences between two different aircraft type ratings of the same manufacturer as determined by the Agency.
A type rating shall only be endorsed on a license after differences training when the applicant also complies with one of the following conditions:
- Having already endorsed on the licence the aircraft type rating from which the differences are being identified, or
- Having completed the type training requirements for the aircraft from which the differences are being identified.
Rating Endorsement on Licence
- The applicant must pass the type examination for the rating endorsement on the aircraft maintenance licence. The examination can be oral, written, or practical assessment based, or a combination thereof.
- Additionally, an applicant must be completed their OJT for initial rating endorsement in the license (sub) category.
- OJT means ‘On-the-Job Training and is only required for the first aircraft rating in the licence (sub) category. The OJT should cover at least 50% of the tasks contained in Appendix II to AMC to Part-66.
- In the case where the On the Job Training is not required, the aircraft type rating shall be endorsed based on a Certificate of Recognition issued by a maintenance training organization approved in accordance with part-147.
- Aircraft type training must have been started and completed within the 3 years preceding the application for a type rating endorsement.
- This license, when endorsed with an aircraft rating, meets the intent of ICAO Annex 1.
How to become a Type Rated Engineer
Type Rated Engineers are called Aircraft Maintenance Engineers having ratings endorsed on their license. Aircraft Technicians become Type Rated Engineers after passing basic knowledge examinations, gaining basic experience, passing theoretical type training and examinations, completing practical training and assessment, passing type examinations, and on-the-job training (for the first aircraft rating in the license (sub) category) completed.
A maintenance technician who wishes to add the Type Rating to the maintenance license must pass the Level 3 type course. The expiry date of the standard course is three years from its start date. Once this period has elapsed, it must be completed again. It is essential to have arranged the OJT before taking a Type Course.
What is OJT
An OJT is a training program where maintenance tasks are performed, depending on the model of aircraft on which the type course was taken. During this training program, the tasks performed will be recorded in the logbook.
The On the Job Training (OJT) must be approved by the competent authority who has issued the license. The objective of OJT is to gain the required competence and experience in performing safe maintenance.
The OJT should include one-to-one supervision and should involve actual work task performance on aircraft/components, covering line, and/or base maintenance tasks. The use of simulators for OJT should not be allowed. The OJT should cover at least 50% of the tasks contained in Appendix II to AMC to Part-66.
The procedures for OJT of a Part-145 organization should be included in the Exposition Manual of the approved maintenance organization. This manual is also called MOE in short.
OJT is only required for the first aircraft rating in the license (sub) category.
How to get into the Type Rating Course
If you already work for an airline or an aircraft maintenance organization, the company itself will provide you with a Type Course. The company will provide you with all the material, personnel, and time needed to perform the OJT. Usually, companies offer these courses as per their requirements as they need new certifying staff.
On the other hand, if your company does not provide you with a Type Training Course, you also have the option of completing this training course at your own expense.
Below is a list of the most popular companies in the world offering type rating courses.
After the passing of the Type Training Course of the aircraft, the next step is – you must complete the OJT. Your OJT must be approved by the license issuing authority.
Some companies who are approved under training organizations as well as maintenance organizations having the approval to conduct the OJT, offer to complete the On-the-job training after the Type Course, While some only conduct the Type Course.
Information on the organization’s capability and approvals can be found in the MOE. MOE corresponds to the Maintenance Organisation Exposition. It is a document in the aviation industry that contains the organization’s scope, functions, and procedures approved by the competent civil aviation authority.
If you are completing the OJT from a different organization, you must ensure the following –
- Obtain a copy of Section 3.15 of the MOE from the maintenance organization specifying its ability to conduct OJT’s.
- A summary report shall be obtained from the Civil Aviation Authority that has approved the maintenance organization’s MOE, specifying that the maintenance program developed for the conduct of the OJT meets the AMC 145(a) requirements.
- Obtain a certified copy of the experience logbook or task list to be performed at the maintenance organization.
- Request the EASA form 4 from the head of the quality department or maintenance manager who will sign the OJT.
Note: The above information is for educational purposes only, and should not be taken as regulatory guidelines.