15. COMMUNICATIONS

COMMUNICATIONS
CONCEPTS
Associated terms
Meanings and significance
Define commonly used air traffic services (ATS) terms for stations.
Define commonly used ATS terms for communication methods.
Recognise the terms used in conjunction with the approach and holding procedures.
Air traffic services (ATS) abbreviations
Define commonly used ATS abbreviations:
 flight conditions;
 airspace;
 services;
 time;
 VFR-related terms;
 IFR-related terms;
 miscellaneous.
Q-code groups commonly used in radiotelephony (RT) air-ground communications
Define Q-code groups commonly used in RT air-ground communications:
 pressure settings;
 directions and bearings.
State the procedure for obtaining bearing information in flight.
Categories of messages
Identify to which category of messages a type of message belongs and identify the associated priority indicator.
GENERAL OPERATING PROCEDURES
Transmission standards
Transmission of letters
Know the phonetic alphabet used in RT.
Identify the circumstances when words should be spelt out.
Transmission of numbers
Describe the method of transmission of numbers:
 pronunciation;
 single digits, whole hundreds and whole thousands;
 state how numbers are transmitted in different circumstances.
Transmission of time
Describe the ways of transmitting time:
 the standard time reference is the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC);
 using only minutes, or minutes and hours, when required.
Describe the different ways in which time is to be transmitted.
Transmission techniques
Explain the techniques used for making good RT transmissions.
Standard words and phrases
Define the meaning of standard words and phrases.
Recognise, describe and use the correct standard phraseology for each phase of a VFR flight (consider communication with each type of aeronautical station):
 before taxi;
 taxi;
 departure;
 en route;
 circuit;
 final;
 landing;
 after landing.
Recognise, describe and use the correct standard phraseology for each phase of an IFR flight, including PBN operations (consider communication with each type of aeronautical station):
 before pushback or taxi;
 pushback;
 taxi;
 departure;
 en route;
 approach;
 final approach;
 landing;
 after landing.
Explain phraseology for the selective calling system (SELCAL) and aircraft communications addressing and reporting system (ACARS).
Explain traffic alert and collision avoidance system (TCAS) phraseology.
RT call signs for aeronautical stations including use of abbreviated call signs
Name the two parts of the call sign of an aeronautical station.
Identify the call-sign suffixes for aeronautical stations.
Explain when the call sign may be omitted or abbreviated to the use of suffix only.
RT call signs for aircraft including use of abbreviated call signs
Describe the three different ways to compose an aircraft call sign.
Describe the abbreviated forms for aircraft call signs.
Explain when aircraft call signs may be abbreviated.
Explain when the suffix ‘HEAVY’ or ‘SUPER’ is used with an aircraft call sign.
Explain the use of the phrase ‘Change your call sign to…’.
Explain the use of the phrase ‘Revert to flight plan call sign’.
Transfer of communication
Describe the procedure for transfer of communication:
 by ground station;
 by aircraft.
Test procedures including readability scale
Explain how to test radio transmission and reception.
State the readability scale and explain its meaning.
Read-back and acknowledgement requirements
Describe the requirement to read back ATC route clearances.
Describe the requirement to read back clearances related to the runway in use.
Describe the requirement to read back other clearances including conditional clearances.
Describe the requirement to read back other data such as runway, secondary surveillance radar (SSR) codes, etc.
Radar procedural phraseology
Use the correct phraseology for an aircraft receiving a radar service:
 radar identification;
 radar vectoring;
 traffic information and avoidance;
 SSR procedures.
Level changes and reports
Use the correct term to describe vertical position in relation to:
 flight level (standard pressure setting);
 altitude (metres/feet on QNH);
 height (metres/feet on QFE).
Data link messages
List the different types of messages of the controller–pilot data link communications (CPDLC) function and give examples of data link messages.
Describe a notification phase (LOG ON) and state its purpose.
Explain the phrases to be used:
 when voice communication is used to correct a CPDLC message;
 in case of single CPDLC message failure;
 when CPDLC has failed;
 when reverting from CPDLC to voice communication.
RELEVANT WEATHER INFORMATION
Aerodrome weather
Aerodrome weather terms
List the contents of aerodrome weather reports and state units of measurement used for each item:
 wind direction and speed;
 variation of wind direction and speed;
 visibility;
 present weather;
 cloud amount and type (including the definition of cloud and visibility OK (CAVOK);
 air temperature and dew point;
 pressure values (QNH, QFE);
 supplementary information (aerodrome warnings, landing runway, runway conditions, restrictions, obstructions, wind-shear warnings, etc.).
Weather broadcast
List the sources (VOLMET and ATIS units) of weather information available for aircraft in flight, and describe situation(s) in which a pilot would normally obtain each.
Explain the meaning of the acronyms ‘D-ATIS’, ‘ATIS’, and ‘VOLMET’.
Explain and demonstrate how to decode ATIS messages.
Explain and demonstrate how to decode D-ATIS messages.
VOICE COMMUNICATION FAILURE
Required action
Action required to be taken in case of communication failure
State the action to be taken in case of communication failure on a controlled VFR flight.
Identify the frequencies to be used in an attempt to establish communication.
State the additional information that should be transmitted in the event of receiver failure.
Identify the SSR code that may be used to indicate communication failure.
Explain the action to be taken by a pilot that experiences a communication failure in the aerodrome traffic pattern at controlled aerodromes.
Describe the action to be taken in case of communication failure on an IFR flight.
Describe the action to be taken in case of communication failure on an IFR flight when flying in visual meteorological conditions (VMC) and the flight will be terminated in VMC.
Describe the action to be taken in case of communication failure on an IFR flight when flying in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC).
Explain the causes and possible safety impacts of a blocked frequency.
DISTRESS AND URGENCY PROCEDURES
Signals and procedures
Distress
State the DISTRESS signal(s) and DISTRESS procedure(s).
Define ‘DISTRESS’.
Identify the frequencies that should be used by aircraft in DISTRESS.
Specify the emergency SSR codes that may be used by aircraft, and the meaning of the codes.
Describe the action to be taken by the station which receives a DISTRESS message.
Describe the action to be taken by all other stations when a DISTRESS procedure is in progress.
List the correctly sequenced elements of a DISTRESS signal/message and describe the message content.
Describe the use of discrete frequencies (DEF) in case of distress or urgency.
State that DISTRESS messages take priority over all other messages.
Urgency
State the URGENCY signal(s) and URGENCY procedure(s).
Define ‘URGENCY’.
Identify the frequencies that should be used by aircraft in URGENCY.
Describe the action to be taken by the station which receives an URGENCY message.
Describe the action to be taken by all other stations when an URGENCY procedure is in progress.
List the correctly sequenced elements of an URGENCY signal/message and describe the message content.
State that URGENCY messages take priority over all other messages except DISTRESS.
VHF PROPAGATION AND ALLOCATION OF FREQUENCIES
General principles
Spectrum, bands, range
Describe the radio-frequency spectrum with particular reference to VHF.
Describe the radio-frequency spectrum of the bands into which the radio-frequency spectrum is divided.
Identify the frequency range of the VHF band.
State the band normally used for aeronautical mobile service (AMS) voice communication.
State the frequency separation allocated between consecutive VHF frequencies.
List the factors which reduce the effective range and quality of VHF radio transmissions.
Other communications
Weather observations, Morse code
Meteorological observations
Explain when aircraft routine meteorological observations should be made.
Explain when aircraft special meteorological observations should be made.
Use of Morse code
Describe and list Morse code.
Find the Morse code identifiers of radio navigation aids (VHF omnidirectional radio range (VOR), distance‑measuring equipment (DME), non-directional radio beacon (NDB), instrument landing system (ILS)) using aeronautical charts.

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