7. PERFORMANCE – HELICOPTERS

FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND PLANNING
PERFORMANCE — HELICOPTERS
GENERAL
Performance legislation
Airworthiness requirements
Interpret the airworthiness requirements of CS-27 and CS-29.
Name the general differences between helicopters certified according to CS-27 and CS-29.
Operational regulations
State that the person responsible for complying with operational procedures is the commander.
Use and interpret diagrams and tables associated with CAT A and CAT B procedures in order to select and develop Class 1, 2 and 3 performance profiles according to available heliport size and location (surface or elevated).
Interpret the charts showing minimum clearances associated with CAT A and CAT B procedures.
General performance theory
Phases of flight
Explain the following phases of flight:
— take-off;
— climb;
— level flight;
— descent;
— approach and landing.
Describe the necessity for different take-off and landing procedures.
Definitions and terms
Define the following terms:
— CAT A;
— CAT B;
— Performance Class 1, 2 and 3;
— congested area;
— elevated heliport;
— helideck;
— heliport;
— hostile environment;
— maximum operational passenger seating configuration (MOPSC);
— non-hostile environment;
— obstacle;
— rotor radius (R);
— take-off mass;
— touchdown and lift-off area (TLOF);
— safe forced landing;
— speed for best rate of climb (Vy);
— never exceed speed (VNE);
— velocity landing gear extended (VLE);
— velocity landing gear operation (VLO);
— cruising speed and maximum cruising speed.
Define the following terms:
— reported headwind component;
— take-off decision point (TDP);
— defined point after take-off (DPATO);
— take-off distance required helicopter (TODRH);
— take-off distance available helicopter (TODAH);
— distance required (DR);
— rejected take-off distance required helicopter (RTODRH);
— rotation point (RP);
— committal point (CP);
— defined point before landing (DPBL);
— landing decision point (LDP);
— landing distance available helicopter (LDAH);
— landing distance required helicopter (LDRH);
— ditching (see operations).
Understand the meaning and significance of the acronyms AEO and OEI.
Define the terms ‘climb angle’ and ‘climb gradient’.
Define the terms ‘flight-path angle’ and ‘flight-path gradient’.
Define ‘VmaxRange’ (speed for maximum range) and VmaxEnd (speed for maximum endurance).
Define and calculate the gradient by using power, wind, and helicopter mass.
Explain the terms ‘operational ceiling’ and ‘absolute ceiling’.
Explain the term ‘service ceiling OEI’.
Explain the difference between hovering in ground effect (HIGE) and hovering out of ground effect (HOGE).
Power required/power available curves
Understand and interpret the power required/power available versus TAS graphs.
Height–velocity graphs
Understand and interpret height–velocity graphs.
Influencing variables on performance
Explain how the following factors affect helicopter performance:
— pressure altitude;
— humidity;
— temperature;
— wind;
— helicopter mass;
— helicopter configuration;
— helicopter centre of gravity (CG).
PERFORMANCE CLASS 3 — SINGLE-ENGINE HELICOPTERS
Effect of variables on single-engine (SE) helicopter performance
Effect of variables on SE helicopter performance
Determine the wind component, altitude and temperature for hovering, take-off and landing.
Explain that operations are to be conducted only from/to heliports and over such routes, areas and diversions contained in a non-hostile environment where a safe forced landing can be carried out (point CAT.OP.MPA.137 of the EU Regulation on air operations, except when the helicopter is approved to operate in accordance with point CAT.POL.H.420).
(Consider the exception: Operations may be conducted in a hostile environment. Ground level exposure — and exposure for elevated final approach and take-off areas (FATOs) or helidecks in non-hostile environments — is allowed for operations approved under CAT.POL.H.305, during the take-off and landing phases.)
Explain the effect of temperature, wind and altitude on climb, cruise and descent performance.
Take-off and landing
Take-off and landing (including hover)
Explain the take-off and landing requirements.
Explain the maximum allowed take-off and landing mass.
Explain that mass has to be restricted to HIGE.
Explain that if HIGE is unlikely to be achieved (for example, blocked by an obstruction), then mass must be restricted to HOGE.
Climb, cruise and descent
Climb, cruise and descent (capabilities)
State that the helicopter must be capable of flying its intended track without flying below the appropriate minimum flight altitude and be able to perform a safe forced landing.
Explain the effect of altitude on the maximum endurance speed.
Use of helicopter performance data
Take-off (including hover)
Find the maximum wind component.
Find the maximum allowed take-off mass for certain conditions.
Find the height–velocity parameters.
Climb
Find the time, distance and fuel required to climb for certain conditions.
Find the rate of climb under given conditions and the best rate-of-climb speed VY.
Cruise
Find the cruising speed and fuel consumption for certain conditions.
Calculate the range and endurance under given conditions.
Landing (including hover)
Find the maximum wind component.
Find the maximum allowed landing mass for certain conditions.
Find the height–velocity parameters.
PERFORMANCE CLASS 2
General remark: The Learning Objectives for Performance Class 2 are principally identical with those for Performance Class 1. (See 034 04 00 00)
Additional Learning Objectives are shown below.
Operations without an assured safe forced landing capability
Responsibility for operations without an assured safe forced landing capability
State the responsibility of the operator for assuring safe forced landings (point CAT.POL.H.305 of the EU Regulation on air operations).
Take-off
Take-off requirements
State the climb and other requirements for take‑off.
Take-off flight path
Take-off flight path requirements
State the height above the take-off surface at which at least the requirements for the take-off flight path for Performance Class 1 are to be met.
Landing
Landing requirements
State the requirements for the climb capability when OEI.
State the options for a Performance Class 2 operation in the case of a critical power-unit failure at any point in the approach path.
State the limitations for operations to/from a helideck.
PERFORMANCE CLASS 1 — HELICOPTERS CERTIFIED ACCORDING TO CS-29 ONLY
Take-off
Take-off distances
Explain the effects of the following variables on the flight-path and take-off distances:
— take-off with HIGE or HOGE;
— take-off procedure;
— obstacle clearances both laterally and vertically;
— take-off from non-elevated heliports;
— take-off from elevated heliports or helidecks;
— take-off from a TLOF.
Explain the effects of the following variables on take-off distances:
— mass;
— take-off configuration;
— bleed-air configurations.
Explain the effects of the following meteorological conditions on take-off distances:
— wind;
— temperature;
— pressure altitude.
Explain the take-off distances for specified conditions and configuration for AEO and OEI.
Explain the effect of obstacles on the take-off distance required.
State the assumed reaction time between engine failure and recognition.
Explain that the flight must be carried out visually up to TDP.
Rejected take-off distance required (helicopter) (RTODR(H))
Explain RTODR(H) for specified conditions and configuration for AEO and OEI.
Explain the time-to-decide allowance (decision time) and deceleration procedure.
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Take-off climb
Define the segments of the take-off flight path.
Explain the effect of changes in the configuration on power and speed in the segments.
Explain the climb-gradient requirements for OEI.
State the minimum altitude over the take-off path when flying at the take-off safety speed in a Category A helicopter (VTOSS).
Describe the influence of airspeed selection, acceleration and turns on the climb gradient and best rate-of-climb speed.
Obstacle-limited take-off
Describe the operational regulations for obstacle clearance of the take-off flight path in the departure sector with OEI.
Use of helicopter performance data
Determine from helicopter performance data sheets the maximum mass that satisfies the operational regulations for take-off in terms of regulated take-off mass, TODRH and minimum gradients for climb and obstacle clearance.
Climb
Climb techniques
Explain the effect of climbing with best rate-of-climb speed (VY).
Explain the influence of altitude on VY.
Use of helicopter flight data
Find the rate of climb and calculate the time to climb to a given altitude.
Cruise
Cruise techniques
Explain the cruise procedures for ‘maximum endurance’ and ‘maximum range’.
Maximum endurance
Explain fuel flow in relation to true airspeed (TAS).
Explain the speed for maximum endurance.
Maximum range
Explain the speed for maximum range.
Maximum cruise
Explain the speed for maximum cruise.
Cruise altitudes
Explain the factors which might affect or limit the operating altitude.
Understand the relation between power setting, fuel consumption, cruising speed and altitude.
Use of helicopter performance data
Determine the fuel consumption from the helicopter performance data sheets in accordance with altitude and helicopter mass.
En-route one-engine-inoperative (OEI)
Requirements for en-route flights with OEI
State the flight-path clearance requirements.
Explain drift-down techniques.
State the reduction in the flight-path width when navigational accuracy can be achieved.
Use of helicopter flight data
Find the single-engine service ceiling, range and endurance from given engine-inoperative charts.
Find OEI operating data from suitable charts.
Find the amount of fuel to be jettisoned in order to reduce helicopter mass.
Calculate the relevant parameters for drift-down procedures.
Descent
Use of helicopter flight data
Find the rate of descent and calculate the time to descend to a given altitude.
Landing
Landing requirements
State the requirements for landing.
Landing procedures
Explain the procedure for critical power-unit failure before and after the landing decision point.
Explain that the portion of flight after the landing decision point must be carried out visually.
Explain the procedures and required obstacle clearances for landings on different heliports/helidecks.
Use of helicopter performance data
Determine from helicopter performance data sheets the maximum mass that satisfies the operational regulations for landing in terms of regulated landing mass, LDRH and minimum gradients for climb and obstacle clearance.

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