6. FLIGHT PLANNING AND MONITORING

FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND PLANNING
FLIGHT PLANNING AND MONITORING
FLIGHT PLANNING FOR VFR FLIGHTS
Remark: Using the GSPRM VFR charts.
VFR navigation plan
Airspace, communication, visual and radio‑navigation data from VFR charts
Select routes taking the following criteria into account:
— classification of airspace;
— restricted areas;
— VFR semicircular rules;
— visually conspicuous points;
— radio-navigation aids.
Find the frequencies or identifiers of radio‑navigation aids from charts.
Find the communication frequencies and call signs for the following:
— control agencies and service facilities;
— flight information service (FIS);
— weather information stations;
— automatic terminal information service (ATIS).
Planning courses, distances and cruising levels with VFR charts
Choose visual waypoints in accordance with specified criteria (large, unique, contrast, vertical extent, etc.).
Measure courses and distances from a VFR chart.
Find the highest obstacle within a given distance on either side of the course.
Find the following data from a VFR chart and transfer them to a navigation plan:
— waypoints or turning points;
— distances;
— true/magnetic courses.
Calculate the minimum pressure altitude with a given obstacle clearance or true altitude from a given altitude or pressure altitude from minimum grid-area altitude using outside air temperature (OAT) and QNH.
Calculate the vertical or horizontal distance and time to climb or descend to/from a given level or altitude with given data.
Explain how to determine the position of a significant VFR point for insertion into a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) flight plan, using the distance and bearing from an existing significant point and using coordinates.
Aerodrome charts and aerodrome directory
Explain the reasons for studying the visual departure procedures and the available approach procedures.
Find all visual procedures which can be expected at the departure, destination and alternate aerodromes.
Find all relevant aeronautical and regulatory information required for VFR flight planning from the aerodrome charts or aerodrome directory.
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Completion of navigation plan
Calculate the true airspeed (TAS) from given aircraft performance data, altitude and OAT.
Calculate wind correction angles (WCAs), drift and ground speeds (GS).
Calculate individual and accumulated times for each leg to destination and alternate aerodromes.
FLIGHT PLANNING FOR IFR FLIGHTS
Remark: Using the GSPRM IFR charts.
IFR navigation plan
Air traffic service (ATS) routes
Identify suitable routings by identifying all relevant aeronautical and regulatory information (including information published in the national aeronautical information publication (AIP)) required for IFR flight planning.
Identify and describe ATS routes (conventional, area navigation (RNAV), required navigation performance (RNP), conditional routes (CDRs), and direct routes).
Courses and distances from en-route charts
Determine courses and distances.
Determine bearings and distances of waypoints from radio-navigation aids.
Altitudes
Define the following altitudes:
— minimum en-route altitude (MEA);
— minimum obstacle clearance altitude (MOCA);
— minimum sector altitude (MSA);
— minimum off-route altitude (MORA);
— grid minimum off-route altitude (Grid MORA);
— maximum authorised altitude (MAA);
— minimum crossing altitude (MCA);
— minimum holding altitude (MHA).
Extract the following altitudes from the chart(s):
— MEA;
— MOCA;
— MSA;
— MORA;
— Grid MORA;
— MAA;
— MCA;
— MHA.
State who is responsible for terrain separation during IFR flight inside and outside controlled airspace.
State the minimum obstacle clearance requirements for en-route IFR flight inside and outside controlled airspace.
State when a temperature error correction must be applied by either the pilot or ATC.
Identify and explain the use of minimum radar vectoring altitudes.
Calculate the minimum pressure altitude required with a given obstacle clearance, magnetic track, OAT, QNH and reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM)/non-RVSM information.
Calculate true altitude above a given datum using a given pressure altitude, OAT and QNH.
Standard instrument departure (SID) and standard instrument arrival (STAR) routes
State the reasons for studying SID and STAR charts.
State that SID and STAR charts show procedures only in a pictorial presentation style which may not be true to scale.
Interpret all data and information represented on SID and STAR charts, particularly:
— routings;
— distances;
— courses;
— radials;
— altitudes/levels;
— frequencies;
— restrictions;
— RNAV waypoints and non-RNAV intersection;
— fly-over and fly-by waypoints.
Identify SID and STAR charts which might be relevant for a planned flight.
Define SID and STAR for RNAV only.
Describe the difference between SID/STAR, RNAV SID/STAR and RNAV SID/STAR overlay.
Instrument-approach charts
State the reasons for being familiar with instrument-approach procedures (IAPs) and appropriate data for departure, destination and alternate aerodromes.
Select IAPs appropriate for departure, destination and alternate aerodromes.
Interpret all procedures, data and information represented on instrument-approach charts, particularly:
— courses and radials;
— distances;
— altitudes/levels/heights;
— restrictions;
— obstructions;
— frequencies;
— speeds and times;
— decision altitudes/heights (DAs/Hs);
— (DA/H) and minimum descent altitudes/heights (MDAs/Hs);
— visibility and runway visual ranges (RVRs);
— approach-light systems.
Explain the following IAP terms:
— type A and B;
— 2D and 3D;
— CAT I, II and III;
— precision approach (conventional and ground-based augmentation system (GBAS));
— non-precision approach (conventional and required navigation performance approach (RNP APCH) (lateral navigation (LNAV), LNAV/vertical navigation (VNAV), localiser performance (LP), localiser performance with vertical guidance (LPV), and required navigation performance authorisation required approach (RNP AR APCH));
— approach procedure with vertical guidance (APV) (APV Baro and APV satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS)).
Communications and radio-navigation planning data
Find the communication frequencies and call signs for aeronautical services for IFR flights from en‑route charts.
Find the frequency or identifiers of radio-navigation aids for IFR flights from en-route charts.
Completion of a manual navigation plan
Complete a navigation plan with the courses, distances and frequencies taken from charts.
Find the SID and STAR routes to be flown or to be expected.
Determine the position of top of climb (TOC) and top of descent (TOD) from given appropriate data.
Determine variation and calculate magnetic/true courses.
Calculate TAS from given aircraft performance data, altitude and OAT.
Calculate wind correction angles (WCAs)/drift and ground speeds (GSs).
Calculate individual and accumulated times for each leg to destination and alternate aerodromes.
Describe the advantages of global navigation satellite system/flight management computer (GNSS/FMC) equipment regarding:
— automatic calculation and display of tracks and leg distances;
— additional route information in the database (minimum altitudes, approach procedures);
— time and fuel estimates over waypoints;
— ability to adjust speed to arrive over a waypoint at a defined time;
— time and fuel revisions based on predicted and actual wind.
Describe the limitations of using GNSS/FMC equipment:
— pilot-inputted errors (flight levels, wind, temperature, fuel);
— the effect of other than predicted wind on fuel and time estimates;
— the effect of aircraftʼs non-standard configuration on flight management system (FMS) predictions.
FUEL PLANNING — OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
General
Fuel planning (general)
Convert to volume, mass and density given in different units which are commonly used in aviation.
Determine relevant data, such as fuel capacity, fuel flow/ consumption at different power/thrust settings, altitudes and atmospheric conditions, from the flight manual.
Calculate the attainable flight time/range from given average fuel flow/consumption and available amount of fuel.
Calculate the required fuel from given average fuel flow/ consumption and required time/range to be flown.
Calculate the required fuel for a VFR flight from given forecast meteorological conditions.
State the minimum amount of remaining fuel required on arrival at the destination and alternate aerodromes/ heliports.
Explain and describe how to calculate nautical air miles (NAM) from nautical ground miles (NGM).
Calculate the required fuel for an IFR flight from given forecast meteorological conditions.
Pre-flight fuel planning for commercial flights
Taxi fuel
Determine the fuel required for engine start and taxiing by consulting the fuel-usage tables or graphs from the flight manual taking into account all the relevant conditions.
Trip fuel
Define trip fuel and name the segments of flight for which the trip fuel is relevant.
Determine the trip fuel for the flight by using data from the fuel tables or graphs from the flight manual.
Reserve fuel and its components
Contingency fuel
Explain the reasons for having contingency fuel.
Calculate the contingency fuel according to the applicable operational requirements.
Alternate fuel
Explain the reasons and regulations for having alternate fuel and name the segments of flight for which the alternate fuel is relevant.
Calculate the alternate fuel in accordance with the applicable operational requirements and relevant data from the navigation plan and the flight manual.
Final reserve fuel
Explain the reasons and regulations for having final reserve fuel.
Calculate the final reserve fuel for an aircraft in accordance with the applicable operational requirements and by using relevant data from the flight manual.
Additional fuel
Explain the reasons and regulations for having additional fuel.
Calculate the additional fuel for a flight in accordance with the applicable operational requirements.
Extra fuel
Explain the reasons and regulations for having extra fuel in accordance with the applicable operational requirements.
Calculate the possible extra fuel under given conditions.
Explain the fuel penalty incurred when loading extra fuel (i.e. the additional fuel consumption due to increased mass).
Calculation of total fuel and completion of the fuel section of the navigation plan (fuel plan)
Calculate the total fuel required for a given flight.
Complete the fuel plan.
Specific fuel-calculation procedures
Reduced contingency fuel procedure
Explain the reasons and regulations for reduced contingency fuel as stated in the applicable operational requirements.
Calculate the contingency fuel and trip fuel required in accordance with the reduced contingency fuel procedure.
Isolated aerodrome or heliport procedure
Explain the basic procedures for an isolated aerodrome or heliport as stated in the applicable operational requirements.
Calculate the additional fuel for aeroplanes or helicopters according to the isolated aerodrome or heliport procedures.
Predetermined-point procedure
Explain the basic idea of the predetermined-point procedure as stated in the applicable operational requirements.
Fuel-tankering
Explain the basic idea of fuel-tankering procedures.
Calculate how much fuel to tank by using given appropriate graphs, tables or data.
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PRE-FLIGHT PREPARATION
Notice to airmen (NOTAM) briefing
Ground- and satellite-based facilities and services
Check that the ground- and satellite-based facilities and services required for the planned flight are available and adequate.
Departure, destination and alternate aerodromes
Find and analyse the latest state at the departure, destination and alternate aerodromes, in particular for:
— opening hours;
— work in progress (WIP);
— special procedures due to WIP;
— obstructions;
— changes of frequencies for communications, navigation aids and facilities.
Check that satellite-based facilities are available during the expected time of use.
Check that GBAS/SBAS augmentation is available during the expected time of use.
Airway routings and airspace structure
Find and analyse the latest en-route state for:
— airway(s) or route(s);
— restricted, danger and prohibited areas;
— changes of frequencies for communications, navigation aids and facilities.
Pre-flight preparation of GNSS achievability
Define why it is important to check GNSS achievability.
Define receiver autonomous integrity monitoring (RAIM), NOTAM and notice advisory to NavStar users (NANU) messages.
Explain the difference in use of augmented and non-augmented GNSS in connection with the achievability check.
Explain the difference in planned and unplanned outage of GNSS or SBAS.
Meteorological briefing
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Update of navigation plan using the latest meteorological information
Confirm the most fuel-efficient altitude from given wind, temperature and aircraft data.
Confirm true altitudes from given atmospheric data to ensure that statutory minimum clearance is attained.
Confirm magnetic headings and GSs.
Confirm the individual leg times and the total time en route.
Confirm the total time en route for the trip to the destination.
Confirm the total time from destination to the alternate aerodrome.
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Update of fuel plan
Calculate the revised fuel data in accordance with the changed conditions.
Point of equal time (PET) and point of safe return (PSR)
Point of equal time (PET)
Define ‘PETʼ.
Calculate the position of a PET and the estimated time of arrival (ETA) at the PET from given relevant data.
Point of safe return (PSR)
Define ‘PSRʼ.
Calculate the position of a PSR and the ETA at the PSR from given relevant data.
ICAO FLIGHT PLAN (ATS flight plan (FPL))
Individual FPL
Format of FPL
State the reasons for a fixed format of an ICAO ATS FPL.
Determine the correct entries to complete an ATS FPL plus decode and interpret the entries in a completed ATS FPL, particularly for the following:
— aircraft identification (Item 7);
— flight rules and type of flight (Item 8);
— number and type of aircraft and wake‑turbulence category (Item 9);
— equipment (Item 10);
— departure aerodrome and time (Item 13);
— route (Item 15);
— destination aerodrome, total estimated elapsed time and alternate aerodrome (Item 16);
— other information (Item 18);
— supplementary information (Item 19).
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Repetitive flight plan (RPL)
Repetitive flight plan (RPL)
Explain the difference between an individual FPL and an RPL.
FLIGHT MONITORING AND IN-FLIGHT REPLANNING
Flight monitoring
Monitoring of track and time
State the reasons for possible deviations from the planned track and planned timings.
Calculate GS by using actual in-flight parameters.
Calculate the expected leg times by using actual in‑flight parameters.
Enter, in the progress of flight, at the checkpoint or turning point, the ‘actual time-over’ and the ‘estimated time-over’ for the next checkpoint into the flight plan.
State that it is necessary to determine the position of the aircraft accurately before commencing descent in order to ensure safe ground clearance.
Calculate revised ETA based on changes to the pre‑flight plan, including changes of W/V, cruise level, OAT, distances, Mach number and calibrated airspeed (CAS).
In-flight fuel management
Explain why fuel checks must be carried out in flight at regular intervals and why relevant fuel data must be recorded.
Assess deviations of actual fuel consumption from planned consumption.
Calculate fuel quantity used, fuel consumption, and fuel remaining at navigation checkpoints/waypoints.
Compare the actual with the planned fuel consumption by means of calculation.
Determine the remaining range and endurance by means of calculation.
Calculate the revised fuel consumption based on changes to the pre-flight plan, including changes of W/V, cruise level, OAT, distances, Mach number and CAS.
In-flight replanning
Deviation from planned data
State that the commander is responsible for ensuring that, even in case of diversion, the remaining fuel is not less than the fuel required to proceed to an aerodrome where a safe landing can be made, with final reserve fuel remaining.
Explain that, in the case of an in-flight update, the commander has to check the following:
— the suitability of the new destination or alternate aerodrome;
— meteorological conditions on revised routing and at revised destination or alternate aerodrome;
— the aircraft must be able to land with the prescribed final reserve fuel.
Calculate the revised destination/alternate aerodrome landing mass from given latest data.

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